Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of IBA for Efficient Survival of Micropropagated Garcinia indica Choisy Shoots Using in-vitro and ex-vitro Rooting Techniques

Gauri Mulik, Shubha Manvi, Gauri Ingale, Varsha A. Parasharami

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2019/v2i430050

Aims: The study focuses on optimization of concentration and time of rooting hormone exposure of IBA (Indole-3-Butyric Acid) for efficient survival of tissue culture raised Garcinia indica Choisy plantlets for in-vitro and ex-vitro rooting techniques.

Study Design: The subcultured microshoots of Garcinia indica were subjected to in-vitro and ex-vitro rooting trials by treating them with IBA of varying concentration and time, to standardize these particular parameters required by this auxin to induce rooting.

Place and Duration of Study: Rooting trials were carried out in Plant tissue culture-Biochemical Sciences Division of CSIR- National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 between June 2018 and April 2019.

Methodology: Regularly subcultured five to six years old shoots from female trees of Garcinia indica were used for the study. Various concentrations of IBA in correlation with time were used for in-vitro and ex-vitro root induction. The rooted plantlets were then transferred to polyhouse for acclimatization and will further be planted in open field locations in June 2019.

Results: Induction of rooting was observed within thirty days of treatment with IBA. It was observed that 500ppm of IBA gave 30% rooting for in-vitro rooting trials whereas 2000ppm of IBA induced 80% rooting for shoots given ex-vitro rooting treatments. An interesting phenomenon that was observed for 70% of the shoots which failed to induce rooting by in-vitro treatment was that they survived with 100% rooting success under ex-vitro rooting conditions. The hardened plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the polyhouse with survival rate of 90% and were further transferred to polythene bags with rooting mixtures of sand: farmyard manure: coco peat (1:1:2). These plantlets have been healthy for the last 6 to 9 months and will be transported for field trials in June 2019.

Conclusion: Ex-vitro rooting technique was found to be more effective than in-vitro rooting. Thus, by optimizing the rooting hormone parameters, female plants of Garcinia indica can be successfully grown using tissue culture technology and can be propagated in large numbers to increase the female plant number in plantations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Type of Gene Action Conditioning Tolerance to Aluminum (Al) Toxicity in Tropical Maize

Victoria Ndeke, Langa Tembo

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2019/v2i430051

Maize is a third important cereal crop in the world after wheat and rice. In Zambia, it is an important staple crop. Its production is however hampered by both biotic and abiotic factors. Among the abiotic factors, Aluminum (Al) toxicity causes high yield losses and is directly linked to acidic soils. Application of lime can ameliorate this problem, but it is expensive for small scale farmers. Developing maize varieties that are tolerant to Al toxicity is cheaper and feasible for small scale farmers. The purpose of this research was to investigate the type of gene action conditioning tolerance to aluminum toxicity in tropical maize.  Eleven inbred lines were mated in an 8 male (4 moderately tolerant and 4 susceptible) x 3 female (resistant) North Carolina Design II. Results revealed that general combining ability (GCA) effects due to both males and females were highly significant (P≤ 0.001) for root biomass. The shoot length GCA effects due to both male and female respectively were significant (P≤ 0.01). Similarly, the GCA effects due to females and males for root length were significant, P≤ 0.01 and P≤ 0.05 respectively. The genotype CML 511 had the most desirable significant GCA effect value (1.40) for root length among the male lines while CML 538 had the most desirable significant GCA effect value (0.92) among the female lines. The baker’s ratio for root length was found to be 0.49 implying that both additive and non-additive gene action were important in conditioning aluminum toxicity tolerance in tropical maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing between Germination Percentage in Moringa peregrina and Moringa oleifera under Laboratory Conditions

Karima M. A. El-Absy, Nouf A. Khazen, Manal M. Al-Rashidi, Bayan B. Al Anezi, Fareh H. Al Anezi, Njood S. Al Atawi, Amnaa S. Al Anezi, Hana N. Al Balawi

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2019/v2i430052

This study was carried out in February 2019 at the laboratory; Department of Biology, College of Taymaa, Tabuk University. The numbers of germinated seeds were recorded daily after Soaking for two days during 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th and 30th days and final percentage calculated at the end of germination period. Germination percentage, radical length and vigor index values were calculated for the two studied species. The two species (S) under study, days of germination (D) and interaction between them showed highly significant (P < 0.01) for seed germination. Despite germination percentages being slightly higher at the 10th day and 15th day for M. oleifera than M. peregrina, the germination percentages recorded higher values at the 20th, 25th and 30th days for M. peregrina than M. oleifera. The highest seed germinated number recorded at 20th day and 15th day for M. peregrina and M. oleifera, respectively with significant differences between the numbers of germinated seed in two species. Generally, germination %, radical length and vigor index of M. peregrina recorded a higher value compared to M. oleifera. A total value of germination percentage (80.33% and 65.33%) was recorded for M. peregrina and M. oleifera seed after 20 days from germinating time, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiviral Effect of Phyllanthus amarus Leaf Extract against Newcastle Disease Virus in Broilers

C. O. Faeji, M. K. Oladunmoye, I. A. Adebayo, T. T. Adebolu

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2019/v2i430053

Background and Objective: Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of economic importance in poultry industry worldwide. This study was conducted to investigate the antiviral potential of n-hexane leaf extract from Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus).

Methodology: A hundred and twenty day old broiler chickens were purchased and raised for the experiment. At four weeks, the birds were randomly assigned into 12 groups of 10 birds each. Chickens in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were vaccinated while those in 5, 6, 7, and 8 were left unvaccinated. Groups 9 and 10 served as the positive controls while 11 and 12 as the negative controls. All groups except the negative control were infected. To study the prophylactic effect of the extract, chickens in groups 1 and 5 received 250 mg/l while those in groups 2 and 6 received 500 mg/l of leaf extract for fourteen days before experimental infection. The chickens in groups 3 and 7 received 250 mg/l while those in groups 4 and 8 received 500 mg/l of leaf extract for fourteen days after infection with ND virus to assess the therapeutic effect of the extract. Clinical signs, bodyweight changes and mortality rates were documented. Antibody titers against the virus were determined and postmortem examination was conducted.

Results: Results revealed reduction in mortality rates following administration of the n-hexane extract after the challenge. Prophylactic administration of the extract was more effective in reducing the mortality rates of birds due to the virus infection compared to the therapeutic administration. Similarly, antibody titers decreased in a dosage dependent pattern in the prophylactic group.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that the n-hexane leaf extract from P. amarus has significant antiviral potentials against ND virus in broiler chickens and that prophylactic administration at 500 mg/l might be a safer approach in utilization of the leaf extract against Newcastle disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Methanolic Extract of Corchorus olitorius Leaves on Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidaemic Activities in Albino Rats

Augustine I. Airaodion, Joanne D. Akinmolayan, Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Edith O. Airaodion, Uloaku Ogbuagu, Olaide O. Awosanya

Asian Plant Research Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/aprj/2019/v2i430054

Aim: This study sought to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic effect of methanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius leaves in Albino rats.

Methods: Fresh plants of C. olitorius were harvested from the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan. The leaves were dried and extracted using soxhlet apparatus and methanol as the solvent. The methanol was evaporated in a rotary evaporator at 35°C with a yield of 2.17 g which represents a percentage yield of 8.68%. Ten adult male albino rats with body weight between 100 and 120 g were used for this study. They were randomly divided into two groups of five rats each. Animals in group 1 were administered saline solution while those in group 2 were administered C. olitorius extract. The animals were exposed to the extract and saline solution at a dose of 3 mL per 100 g body weight 12 hourly via oral route of administration. After fourteen days of administration, the animals were fasted overnight and anaesthetized using diethyl ether. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile were determined using standard methods.

Results: C. olitorius leaves was observed to significantly lower fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride but increased HDL-cholesterol and HDL/LDL-cholesterol ratio significantly when compared to those of the control group at p<0.05.

Conclusion: The result of this study implies that C. olitorius leaves are of significant health importance as far as hyperglucosemia and hyperlipidaemia is concerned. It could also be exceedingly helpful in the control of obesity and hypertension. This pharmacological study is a useful tool for further drug development from the natural plant products.