Toxic Effects of Pesticides on Humans, Plants, Animals, Pollinators and Beneficial Organisms
Asian Plant Research Journal,
Pesticides are a hidden threat to humans, animals, insects, as well as to all ecosystems. They control pests and play an important role in crop productivity and prevent vector borne-diseases in humans, but they also extremely pollute our surroundings. These toxic substances are found in soil, water, air, plants, food and feed. Their residues enter plants and animal products and accumulate in humans and animals by the food chain. They endanger our lives and put down our health, as well as demolish beneficial organisms in the environment. This paper expresses a piece of information that has been obtained from reviewing academic papers, books and other sources. People take these toxic chemicals from water, air, and agricultural products, as well as their surroundings. They are stored in humans and animals’ tissues or excreted by different routes, but their adverse effects have no end. Brain, kidneys, skin, gastrointestinal, liver, lungs, spleen and every organ of humans are suppressed by them. They cause various diseases, cancers, mutations, as well as lead to death. These chemicals destroy honeybees’ colonies and decrease pollinator’s populations. Additionally, birds, wildlife and soil organisms are extremely suppressed by the heavy application of pesticides. They damage human beings, animals, pollinators, honeybees, and soil microorganisms. Increasing the application of pesticides decreases the population of pollinators, honeybees, and other beneficial organisms, as well as impacts human health. If these living organisms are diminished, our lives are threatened by food shortage, a collapsed economy, and increased food and feed demand, therefore new crises including famine and diseases put down our prosperity. All pesticides should be used cautiously and need to develop a new type of pesticides that do not harm seriously our environment.
- neurotoxicity mutagenicity
- beneficial microorganisms.
How to Cite
Sarwar M. The dangers of pesticides associated with public health and preventing the risks. International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering. 2015;1(2):130-136.
Wahab A, Hod R, Ismail NH, Omar N. The effect of pesticide exposure on cardiovascular system: A systematic review. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2016;3(1):1-10
Nicolopoulou-Stamati P, Maipas S, Kotampasi C, Stamatis P, Hens L. Chemical pesticides and human health: The urgent need for a new concept in agriculture. Frontiers in Public Health. 2016;4:148.
Qian J, Shi C, Wang S, Song Y, Fan B, Wu X. Cloud-based system for rational use of pesticide to guarantee the source safety of traceable vegetables. Food Control. 2018; 87:192-202.
Stanley J, Preetha G. Pesticide toxicity to non-target organisms. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 2016.
Silva V, Mol HG, Zomer P, Tienstra M, Ritsema CJ, Geissen V. Pesticide residues in European agricultural soils–A hidden reality unfolded. Science of the Total Environment. 2019;653:1532-1545.
Zhang M, Zeiss MR, Geng S. Agricultural pesticide use and food safety: California's model. JIA. 2015;14(11):2340-57.
Costa LG. Toxic effects of pesticides. Casarett and Doull’s toxicology: The basic science of poisons. 2008;8:883-930.
Mubushar M, Aldosari FO, Baig MB, Alotaibi BM, Khan AQ. Assessment of farmers on their knowledge regarding pesticide usage and biosafety. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2019;26(7): 1903-1910.
Wu YC, Kabadi SV, Neal-Kluever A. Developmental neurotoxicity considera-tions for food additive safety. in food toxicology: Current Advances and Future Challenges. Apple Academic Press Inc. 2018;93-149.
Khan MS, Rahman MS, editors. Pesticide Residue in Foods: Sources, Management, and Control. Springer; 2017.
Solecki RA, Ritz V, Pesticides. In Toxicology and risk assessment: A comprehenisve introduction. (2nd Edition). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2019;703-722.
Talib AH, Al-Rudainy AJ, Gathwan MA, Thakir BM, Abdulfattah RK. The acute toxicity of herbicide roundup ultra in mosquito fish Gambusia affinis. J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2018;13(1):9-15.
World Health Organization. International code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides: Guidelines for the Registration of Pesticides (No. WHO/HTM/ NTD/WHOPES/2010.7). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
Duchet C, Moraru GM, Spencer M, Saurav K, Bertrand C, Fayolle S, Gershberg Hayoon A, Shapir R, Steindler L, Blaustein L. Pesticide‐mediated trophic cascade and an ecological trap for mosquitoes. Ecosphere. 2018;9(4): 02179.
Harit G. Organochlorine pesticides: A threat to aquatic ecosystems. In Handbook of Research on the Adverse Effects of Pesticide Pollution in Aquatic Ecosystems 2019;41-63. IGI Global.
Miller TP, Rebek EJ, Schnelle MA. Banker plants for control of greenhouse pests. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service. 2017;7334:1-7.
Ahmad KS. Exploring the potential of Juglans regia-derived activated carbon for the removal of adsorbed fungicide Ethaboxam from soils. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2018;190(12): 737.
Carvalho FP. Pesticides, environment and food safety. Food and Energy Security. 2017;6(2):48-60.
Deadman ML. Sources of pesticide residues in food: Toxicity, exposure, and risk associated with use at the farm level. In Pesticide residue in foods. Springer, Cham. 2017;7-35.
World Health Organization. The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification 2019. (. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.). Geneva: World Health Organization. 2020; 1-92.
Thomson L. Pesticide impacts on beneficial species. Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation. 2012;5:1-7.
FAO and WHO. International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management: Guidelines on Good Labelling Practice for Pesticides (revised). Rome; 2015.
Adams S. The Designer's Dictionary of Color. Abrams. 2017;1-257.
Ali Beg MA. Classification of Pesticides. In Pesticides Toxicity Specificity & Politics. 2017;22-45.
Britt J. Properties and effects of pesticides. In Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications. 2015;309-324.
Manahan S. Fundamentals of environ-mental and toxicological chemistry: Sustainable science. CRC press. 2013;75- 116.
Raven PH, Berg LR, Hassenzahl DM. Environment. (7th Edition). John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2011;535.
Miller GT, Spoolman S. Environmental science. (15th edition). Cengage Learning. 2016;171:232.
Saeed MF, Shaheen M, Ahmad I, Zakir A, Nadeem M, Chishti AA, Shahid M, Bakhsh K, Damalas CA. Pesticide exposure in the local community of Vehari District in Pakistan: An assessment of knowledge and residues in human blood. Science of The Total Environment. 2017; 587:137-144.
Yuan X, Pan Z, Jin C, Ni Y, Fu Z, Jin Y. Gut microbiota: an underestimated and unintended recipient for pesticide-induced toxicity. Chemosphere. 2019;227:425-434.
Gillois K, Lévêque M, Théodorou V, Robert H, Mercier-Bonin M. Mucus: An underestimated gut target for environ-mental pollutants and food additives. Microorganisms. 2018;6(2):53.
Groh KJ, Geueke B, Muncke J. Food contact materials and gut health: Implications for toxicity assessment and relevance of high molecular weight migrants. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2017;109:1-18.
Lynch JJ, editor. Lippincott's Manual of toxicology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012;139-161.
López-Gálvez N, Wagoner R, Quirós-Alcalá L, Ornelas Van Horne Y, Furlong M, Avila EG, Beamer P. Systematic literature review of the take-home route of pesticide exposure via biomonitoring and environmental monitoring. Int. J. Environ. Res. public health. 2019;16(12):2177.
Wright RT. Environmental science: Toward a sustainable future. Jones & Bartlett Publishers; 2007;316.
Gupta RC. Toxicity of Pesticides. In Lu’s Basic Toxicology: Fundamentals, Target Organs, and Risk Assessment. (7th Edition). CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group. 2018;453-486.
Cimino AM, Boyles AL, Thayer KA, Perry MJ. Effects of neonicotinoid pesticide exposure on human health: A systematic review. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2017;125(2):155-162.
Marshall EJP. Biodiversity, herbicides and non-target plants. In Brighton Crop Protection Conference Weeds. 2001;2: 855-862.
Boutin C, Strandberg B, Carpenter D, Mathiassen SK, Thomas PJ. Herbicide impact on non-target plant reproduction: What are the toxicological and ecological implications? Environmental Pollution. 2014;185:295-306.
Isenring R. Pesticides and the loss of biodiversity: How intensive pesticide use affects wildlife populations and species diversity. PAN Europe, London; 2010.
Zimdahl RL. Fundamentals of Weed Science. (3rd Edition). Academic Press, Elsevier Inc. 2007;395-436.
Cunningham WP, Cunningham MA. Principles of environmental science: Inquiry & application (8th edition). Published by McGraw-Hill Education. 2017;119.
Pesiakova AA, Gusakova EV, Trofimova AN, Sorokina TY. Migratory birds are the source of highly toxic organic pollutants for indigenous people in the Russian Arctic. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2017; 107:1755-1315.
Ruiz-Suárez N, Boada LD, Henríquez-Hernández LA, González-Moreo F, Suárez-Pérez A, Camacho M, Zumbado M, Almeida-González M, del Mar Travieso-Aja M, Luzardo OP. Continued implication of the banned pesticides carbofuran and aldicarb in the poisoning of domestic and wild animals of the Canary Islands (Spain). Science of the Total Environment. 2015; 505:1093-1099.
Martin C. A re-examination of the pollinator crisis. Elsevier Ltd. Current Biology. 2015; 25:811–815.
Chen Z, Yao X, Dong F, Duan H, Shao X, Chen X, Yang T, Wang G, Zheng Y. Ecological toxicity reduction of dinotefuran to honeybee: New perspective from an enantiomeric level. Environment Inter-national. 2019;130:104854.
Rortais A, Arnold G, Dorne JL, More SJ, Sperandio G, Streissl F, Szentes C, Verdonck F. Risk assessment of pesticides and other stressors in bees: Principles, data gaps and perspectives from the European Food Safety Authority. Science of the Total Environment. 2017;587:524-537.
Nicholls CI, Altieri MA. Plant biodiversity enhances bees and other insect pollinators in agroecosystems. A review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 2013;33(2):257-274.
Sanchez-Bayo F, Goka K. Impacts of pesticides on honey bees. Beekeeping and Bee Conservation-Advances in Research. 2016;4:77-97.
Jilani S. Comparative assessment of growth and biodegradation potential of soil isolate in the presence of pesticides. Saudi journal of biological sciences. 2013; 20(3):257-264.
Sponsler DB, Grozinger CM, Hitaj C, Rundlöf M, Botías C, Code A, Lonsdorf EV, Melathopoulos AP, Smith DJ, Suryanarayanan S, Thogmartin WE. Pesticides and pollinators: A socio-ecological synthesis. Science of the Total Environment. 2019;662:1012-1027.
Coulon M, Schurr F, Martel AC, Cougoule N, Bégaud A, Mangoni P, Dalmon A, Alaux C, Le Conte Y, Thiéry R, Ribière-Chabert M. Metabolisation of thiamethoxam (a neonicotinoid pesticide) and interaction with the Chronic bee paralysis virus in honeybees. Pesticide biochemistry and physiology. 2018;144:10-18.
Crenna E, Sala S, Polce C, Collina E. Pollinators in life cycle assessment: towards a framework for impact assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2017;140:525-536.
Maddela NR, Venkateswarlu K. Insecticides− Soil Microbiota Interactions. Springer International Publishing; 2018.
El-Naas MH, Mousa HA, El Gamal M. Microbial degradation of chlorophenols. In Microbe-Induced degradation of pesticides. Springer, Cham. 2017;23-58.
Muturi EJ, Donthu RK, Fields CJ, Moise IK, Kim CH. Effect of pesticides on microbial communities in container aquatic habitats. Scientific Reports. 2017;7:44565.
Sandhu HS, Gupta VV, Wratten SD. Evaluating the economic and social impact of soil microbes. In Soil Microbiology and Sustainable Crop Production. 2010;399-417.
Johnsen K, Jacobsen CS, Torsvik V, Sørensen J. Pesticide effects on bacterial diversity in agricultural soils–A review. Biol Fertil Soils. 2001;33(6):443-453..
Pepper IL, Gerba CP. Aeromicrobiology. In Environmental Microbiology. 2015;89-110).
Yousaf S, Khan S, Aslam MT. Effect of pesticides on the soil microbial activity. Pakistan J. Zool. 2013;45(4).
Lehman RM, Cambardella CA, Stott DE, Acosta-Martinez V, Manter DK, Buyer JS, Maul JE, Smith JL, Collins HP, Halvorson JJ, Kremer RJ. Understanding and enhancing soil biological health: the solution for reversing soil degradation. Sustainability. 2015;7(1):988-1027.
Kalia A, Gosal SK. Effect of pesticide application on soil microorganisms. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 2011;57(6):569-596.
Yu Y, Li X, Yang G, Wang Y, Wang X, Cai L, Liu X. Joint toxic effects of cadmium and four pesticides on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida). Chemosphere. 2019;227: 489-495.
Fox JE, Gulledge J, Engelhaupt E, Burow ME, McLachlan JA. Pesticides reduce symbiotic efficiency of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and host plants. PNAS. 2007;104(24):10282-10287.
Abstract View: 984 times
PDF Download: 370 times