Investigating the Type of Gene Action Conditioning Tolerance to Aluminum (Al) Toxicity in Tropical Maize
Asian Plant Research Journal,
Maize is a third important cereal crop in the world after wheat and rice. In Zambia, it is an important staple crop. Its production is however hampered by both biotic and abiotic factors. Among the abiotic factors, Aluminum (Al) toxicity causes high yield losses and is directly linked to acidic soils. Application of lime can ameliorate this problem, but it is expensive for small scale farmers. Developing maize varieties that are tolerant to Al toxicity is cheaper and feasible for small scale farmers. The purpose of this research was to investigate the type of gene action conditioning tolerance to aluminum toxicity in tropical maize. Eleven inbred lines were mated in an 8 male (4 moderately tolerant and 4 susceptible) x 3 female (resistant) North Carolina Design II. Results revealed that general combining ability (GCA) effects due to both males and females were highly significant (P≤ 0.001) for root biomass. The shoot length GCA effects due to both male and female respectively were significant (P≤ 0.01). Similarly, the GCA effects due to females and males for root length were significant, P≤ 0.01 and P≤ 0.05 respectively. The genotype CML 511 had the most desirable significant GCA effect value (1.40) for root length among the male lines while CML 538 had the most desirable significant GCA effect value (0.92) among the female lines. The baker’s ratio for root length was found to be 0.49 implying that both additive and non-additive gene action were important in conditioning aluminum toxicity tolerance in tropical maize.
- Aluminum toxicity
- combining ability
- inbred lines
- gene action
How to Cite
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Maize Production Manual, published by IITA, Oyo Road, PMB 5320 Ibadan, Nigeria; 1982.
Ranum P, Peña-Rosas JP, Garcia-Casal MN. Global maize production, utilization, and consumption, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences; 2014.
Anonymous, World Agricultural Production, United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, Office of Global Analysis International Production Assessment Division (IPAD), Washington, DC. 2018; 20250-1051.
Daly J, Hamrick D, Gereffi G, Guinn A. International growth centre report on Maize value chains in East Africa; 2016. Available:http.//www.cggc.duke.edu
(Accessed on 16/01/2019)
FAOSTAT. Production Countries by Commodity; 2017.
(Accessed on 23/01/2019)
Mwambazi, 2016/2017 Crop forecast Survey by Hon. Dora Siliya, MP Minister of Agriculture. Lusaka; 2017.
Lungu OI. Lime requirement and its determination, in Shitumbanuma (edit), Soil acidity and liming, University of Zambia, Lusaka; 2009.
Singh BD. Plant Breeding, Principles and Methods, Diamond Agencies Pvt. Ltd., Kalyani Publishers, India; 2009.
Tandzi LN, Ngonkeu ELM, Youmbi E, Nartey E, Yeboah M, Gracen V, Ngeve J, Mafouasson H. Agronomic performance of maze hybrids under acid and control soil conditions. International Journal Agronomy Agriculture Research. 2015;6: 275–29.
Banda DJ. Soils of Zambia, in Shitumbanuma (edit), Soil acidity and liming, University of Zambia, Lusaka; 2009.
Singh D, Singh NP, Chauhan SK, Singh P. Developing aluminium-tolerant crop plants using biotechnological tools, Current Science. 2011;100:12- 25.
Maqbool MA, Aslam M, Beshir A and Khan MS. Breeding for Provitamin A bio fortification of maize (Zea mays L.). Plant Breeding. 2018;137.
Tembo L. Effect in hydroponics of nitrogen and aluminium toxicity on tropical maize. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture. 2018;9:1-7.
Kerridge PC, Kronstad WE. Evidence of genetic resistance to aluminium toxicity in wheat: Triticum aestivum, Vill. Agronomy Journal. 1968;60:710- 711.
Chanda R, Munyinda K, Kinkese T and Osiru DS. Genotypic Variation in Seedling Tolerance to Aluminum Toxicity in Historical Maize Inbred Lines of Zambia, Agronomy. 2015;200-215.
VSN International. Genstat Reference Manual (Release 18), Part 3 Procedures. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead, UK; 2015.
Singh RK, Chaudhary BD. Biometrical methods in quantitative genetic analysis. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, India; 1985.
Baker R J. Issues in Diallel analysis. Crop Science. 1978;18:533-536.
Bidhan R, Bhadra S. Effects of toxic levels of aluminium on seedling parameters of rice under hydroponic culture. Elsevier BV; 2014.
Pace J, Lee N, Naik HS, Ganapathysubramanian B, Lu¨bberstedt T. Analysis of Maize (Zea mays L.) seedling roots with the high-throughput image analysis tool ARIA (automatic root image analysis). PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108255. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108255
Tembo L, Asea G, Gibson PT, Okori P. Indirect selection for resistance to Stenocarpella maydis and Fusarium graminearum and the prospects of selecting for high-yielding and resistant maize hybrids. Plant Breeding. 2016;135: 446–451.
Tembo L, Asea G, Gibson PT, Okori P. Quantitative trait Loci for resistance to Stenocarpella maydis and Fusarium graminearum cob rots in tropical maize. Journal of Crop Improvement. 2014;28: 214–228.
Fasahat P, Rajabi A, Rad JM, Derera J. Principles and utilization of combining ability in plant breeding. Biom Biostat Int J. 2016;00085.
Magnavaca R, Gardner CO, Clark RB. Inheritance of aluminum tolerance in maize, in Gahelman HW, Loughman BE (Eds.). Genetic aspects of plant mineral nutrition. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrechtj Bostonj, Lancaster; 1987. ISBN-13: 978-94-010-8102-3 cg 1987
Abstract View: 214 times
PDF Download: 156 times